Evidence

Here’s a preliminary list of studies and surveys demonstrating that workforce health is determined by job design, overtime, social support, efforts/rewards balance, fairness, job security, work/life fit, commute time, and paid leave. New references will be added.

TitleLead AuthorsMain TopicPublicationYear
Impact of changes in mode of travel to work on changes in body mass indexMartin, A, Panter, J, Suhrcke M.CommuteJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health2014
Highway to health? Commute time and well-being among Canadian adultsHilbrecht, M, Smale , B, Mock, SCommuteWorld Leisure Journal2014
Opportunity Costs Surrounding Exercise and Dietary Behaviors: Quantifying Trade-offs Between Commuting Time and Health-Related ActivitiesChristian, TCommute2009
The link between obesity and the built environment Evidence from an ecological analysis of obesity and vehicle miles of travel in CaliforniaLopez-Zetina J, Lee H, Friis RCommuteHealth and Place2006
Rail Commuting Duration and Passenger StressEvans GW, Wener RECommuteHealth Psychology2006
Effort-reward imbalance at work and incident coronary heart disease: a multi-cohort study of 90,164 individualsDragano, N, Siegrist, J, Nyberg, S, et al Effort Reward BalanceEpidemiology2017
Effort-Reward Imbalance and Relational Injustice at Work Predict Sickness Absence: The Whitehall II StudyHead J, Kivimaki M, Siegrist J, et alEffort Reward BalanceJournal of Psychosomatic Research2007
When Reciprocity Fails: Effort-Reward Imbalance in Relation to Coronary Heart Disease and Health Functioning within the Whitehall II StudyKuper H, Singh-Manoux A, Siegrist J, et alEffort Reward BalanceJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2002
Workplace bullying and incivility: a systematic review of interventionsHodgins, M,   MacCurtain, S, Mannix-McNamara, PFairness/BullyingWorkplace Health Management2014
Prevalence of Obesity Among US Workers and Associations with Occupational FactorsLuckhaupt, S, Cohen, M, Li, J, Calvert, GFairness/BullyingAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine2014
Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview SurveyKhubchandani, J, Price, JFairness/BullyingJournal of Community Health2014
Perceived unfairness and socioeconomic inequalities in functional declineHans Bosma, H., Gerritsm, A., Klabbers,G.Fairness/BullyingBMC Public Health2012
Organisational justice and mental health: a systematic review of prospective studiesNdjaboué R, Brisson C, Vézina MFairness/BullyingJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2012
Justice at Work and Metabolic Syndrome: the Whitehall II StudyGimeno, D, Tabak, A,Ferrie, JFairness/BullyingJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2011
Unfairness and health: evidence from the Whitehall II StudyDe Vogli, R, Ferrie, J, Kivimaki, M, Marmot, MFairness/BullyingJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health2007
Organisational Justice and Change in Justice as Predictors of Employee Health: The Whitehall II StudyM Kivimaki, J Ferrie, J Head, M Shipley, J Vahtera, and M MarmotFairness/BullyingJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health2004
Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depressionKivimäki M, Virtanen M, Vartia M, Elovainio M, Vahtera J, Keltikangas-Järvinen LFairness/BullyingJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2003
Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression: systematic review and meta-analysis with additional individual participant dataMadsen, I, Nyberg, S, Magnusson Hanson, L, et alJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Psychological Medicine2017

Worked To Death: The Relationships of Job Demands and Job Control With Mortality


Gonzalez-Mulé, E, Cockburn, BJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Personnel Psychology2016

Globalization, Work, and Cardiovascular Disease


Schnall P, Dobson, M, Landsbergis, PJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)International Journal of Health
Services
2016

Association between job strain and risk of incident stroke


Huang, Y, Xu, S, Hua, JJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Neurology2015

Workplace Stressors & Health Outcomes: Health Policy for the Workplace


Goh, J, Pfeffer, J,  Zenios, SJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Behavioral Science and Policy2015
Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic ReviewLandsbergis, P, Dobson, M, Koutsouras, G, Schnall, PJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)American Journal of Public Health2013
Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women: the IPD-Work ConsortiumFransson, E, Heikkiia, K, Nyberg, S, et alJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)American Journal of Epidemiology2012
Job Strain, Job Insecurity, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Women’s Health Study: Results from a 10-Year Prospective Study Slopen N, Glynn RJ, Buring JE, Lewis TT, Williams DR, et alJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)PLoS ONE2012
Burnout and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Study of 8838 Employees S Toker, S Melamed, S Berliner, D Zeltser, I ShapiraJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Psychosomatic Medicine2012
Association of Workplace Chronic and Acute Stressors with Employee Weight Status: Data From Worksites in TurmoilFernandez, D, Su, H, Winters, P et alJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2011
Job strain in relation to body mass index: pooled analysis of 160 000 adults from 13 cohort studiesNyberg, S, Heikkila, K, Fransson, E, et alJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Journal of Internal Medicine2011
Job strain and masked hypertension Trudel X, Brisson C, Milot AJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Psychosomatic Medicine2010
Psychosocial factors at work and risk of depression: A systematic review of the epidemiological evidenceBonde, JPJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2008
Burnout and risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence, possible causal paths, and promising research directionsMelamed, S, Shirom, A, Toker, S, Berliner, S, & Shapira, IJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Psychological Bulletin2006
Workers’ compensation: Workplace stress and the CVD connectionKimmel, MJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis PA, Baker D (eds)2000
Women, work, and CVDBrisson, CJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis PA, Baker D (eds)2000
The Job Demand-Control(-Support) Model and psychological well-being: a review of 20 years of empirical research Van Der Doef, M, Maes, SJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Work and Stress1999
Effects of work overload and burnout on cholesterol and triglycerides levels: The moderating effects of emotional reactivity among male and female employeesShirom, A, Westman, M, Shamai, O, & Carel, R SJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)Journal of Occupational Health Psychology1997
Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life New York: Basic Books [out of print]Karasek, R, & Theorell, TJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain)[Out-of-print book]1990
Job Strain and the Risk of Stroke: An Individual-Participant Data Meta-Analysis Franson, EJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain))Stroke2015
Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) Santos, I, Griep, R, Alves, MJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain))European Journal of Pain2014
Psychosocial factors: Review of the empirical data among menBelkić K, Landsbergis P, Schnall P, Baker D, Theorell T, Siegrist J, Peter R, Karasek RJob Design (Demand/Control – Job Strain))The Workplace and Cardiovascular Disease Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews Schnall PL, Belkic K, Landsbergis PA, Baker D (eds)2000
Gallup: Obesity Linked to Long-Term Unemployment in US High blood pressure, cholesterol also more common among long-term unemployedJob Stability2014
Gallup: In US, Depression Rates Higher for Long-Term Unemployed Mental health poorest among those jobless for six months or moreJob Stability2014
Robert Wood Johnson research brief: How Does Employment—or Unemployment—Affect Health?Job Stability2013
Perceived job insecurity as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis; Virtanen, M, et alJob StabilityBMJ2013
Job Strain, Job Insecurity, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Women’s Health Study: Results from a 10-Year Prospective Study Slopen N, Glynn R, Buring J, Lewis T, Williams DR, et alJob StabilityPLoS ONE2012
Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort studyKivimäki M, et alOvertimeEuropean Heart Journal2017
Chronic Disease Risks From Exposure to Long-Hour Work Schedules Over a 32-Year Period Dembe, AE, Yao, XOvertime Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2016
Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603,838 individualsKivimäki, M et alOvertimeThe Lancet2015
Prevalence of Obesity Among US Workers and Associations with Occupational FactorsLuckhaupt, S, Cohen, M, Li, J, Calvert, GOvertimeAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine2014
Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individualsKivimäki, M et alOvertimeThe Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology2014
Psychosocial factors at work, long work hours, and obesity: a systematic reviewSolovieva S, Lallukka T, Virtanen M, Viikari-Juntura EOvertimeScandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health2013
Overtime work and incident coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study  Virtanen M, Ferrie JE, Singh-Manoux AOvertimeEuropean Heart Journal2010
The impact of overtime and long work hours on occupational injuries and illnesses: new evidence from the United States  Dembe, A, Erickson, J, Delbos, R, and Banks, SOvertimeJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2005
Overtime and Extended Work Shifts: Recent Findings on Illnesses, Injuries, and Health Behaviors Caruso C, Hitchcock E, Dick R, et alOvertimeNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health2004
The Economics of Paid and Unpaid Leave Council of Economic AdvisoersPaid Leave2014
Center for Economic and Policy Research: No-Vacation Nation RevisitedRay, R, Sanes, M, Schmitt, JPaid Leave2013
Paid leave in private industry over the past 20 years,” (US Bureau of Labor Statistics, August 2013), Giezen, RPaid LeaveBeyond the Numbers: Pay and Benefits2013
Pay Matters: The Positive Economic Impacts of Paid Family Leave for Families, Businesses and the PublicHouser, L, Vartanian, TPaid LeaveRutgers University whitepaper2012
Are Vacations Good for Your Health? The 9-Year Mortality Experience After the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention TrialGump, B, Matthews, KPaid LeavePsychosomatic Medicine2000
A Meta-Analytic Review of Social Identification and Health in Organizational ContextsSteffens, K,
Alexander Haslam, A,
Schuh, S, et al.
Social SupportPersonality and Social Psychology Review2016
Previous sickness absence and current low perceived social support at work among employees in the general population: a historical cohort studyKnapstad M, Holmgren K, Hensing G, Overland SSocial SupportBMJ Open2014
Work-Based Predictors of Mortality: A 20-Year Follow-Up of Healthy EmployeesShirom, A, Toker, S, Alkaly, YSocial SupportHealth Psychology2011
Job strain, social support at work, and incidence of myocardial infarctionHammar, N, Alfredsson, L, Johnson, JSocial SupportJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine1998
Social support and psychiatric sickness absence: a prospective study of British civil servantsStansfeld S, Rael E, Head J, Shipley M, Marmot MSocial SupportPsychological Medicine1997
Does a Flexibility/Support Organizational Initiative Improve High-Tech Employees’ Well-Being?Moen P, Kelly E, Fan W, et alWork-LifeAmerican Sociological Review2016
Work-home interference and burnout: a study based on Swedish twinsBlom V, Sverke M, Bodin L, Bergström G, Lindfors P, Svedberg PWork-LifeJournal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine2014
Work, work-life conflict and health in an industrial work environmentHamming, O, Bauer, GWork-LifeOccupational Medicine (London)2014
Work-Family Conflict and Employee Psychiatric Disorders: The National Comorbidity SurveyFrone, MWork-LifeJournal of Applied Psychology2000